10 articles Electrolyte abnormalities

Hypophosphatemia

Hypophosphatemia: Consider Refeeding Syndrome Sodium Phosphate 15 – 30mmol IV X1 stat – over 4 hours. Choose this one if potassium > 3.5mEq/L. Potassium Phosphate Choose this one if potassium < 3.5mEq/L. Refeeding syndrome: The potentially fatal shifts in fluids and electrolytes that may occur in malnourished patients receiving artificial refeeding (whether enterally or parenterally).…

Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia: Sx = Neuro changes Must look for underlying cause: Fluid overload: CHF, Cirrhosis, acute/chronic kidney failure Hypovolemia: Loss of sodium and water: Dehydration, GI/kidney fluid loss, hypoaldosterone Euvolemic: SIADH SIADH: Restrict fluids. ***Labs to order when evaluating Hyponatremia: Urine osmolality, Serum osmolality, Urinary sodium concentration These are the three essential laboratory tests in the…

Hypercalcemia

Hypercalcemia: (N: 8.4-10.2) Drug-induced hypercalcemia: (10.2 – 10.5) HCTZ: causes high normal or modestly elevated calcium level Slightly increases calcium by increasing the renal tubular calcium absorption. Lithium Primary hyperparathyroidism:***most common cause of hypercalcemia*** [parathyroid adenoma] (ex: 12.0) Usually asymptomatic and present with incidental hypercalcemia on routine labs Serum calcium is only mildly elevated: Ex:…